Stalin murdered millions of others who resisted Communism by sending them into "exile." The Soviet Union singled out many minorities, including Crimean Turks, forcing them from their homes at night and sending them to their deaths, thousands of kilometers away. Those who died on the way numbered in the hundreds of thousands.
Stalin's Death Camps
A gulag prison in the Magadan region of Siberia. Here, millions lived and died under ppalling conditions..
These photos show some scenes of Stalin's death camps.Those who showed the least resistance to Communist Party policy were sent to labor camps called gulags, where prisoners were worked to death.
In the notes below, written by an instructor of the Party committee in Narym in western Siberia, we see that exile in Russia meant "mass murder":
On 29 and 30 April 1933 two convoys of "outdated elements" were sent to us by train from Moscow and Leningrad. On their arrival in Tomsk they were transferred to barges and unloaded, on 18 May and 26 May, onto the island of Nazino, which is situated at the juncture of the Ob and Nazina rivers. The first convoy contained 5,070 people, and the second 1,044: 6,114 in all. The transport conditions were appalling: the little food that was available was inedible, and the deportees were cramped into nearly airtight spaces… The result was a daily mortality rate of 35-40 people.These living conditions however, proved to be luxurious in comparison to what awaited the deportees on the island of Nazino (from which they were supposed to be sent on in groups to their final destination, the new sectors that are being colonized farther up the Nazina River). The island of Nazino is a totally uninhabited place, devoid of any settlements… There were no tools, no grain, and no food. That is how their new life began. The day after the arrival of the first convoy, on 19 May, snow began to fall again, and the wind picked up. Starving, emaciated from months of insufficient food, without shelter, and without tools, … they were trapped. They weren't even able to light fires to ward off the cold. More and more of them began to die…On the first day, 295 people were buried. It was only on the fourth or fifth day after the convoy's arrival on the island that the authorities sent a bit of flour by boat, really no more than a few pounds per person. Once they had received their meager ration, people ran to the edge of the water and tried to mix some of the flour with water in their hats, their trousers, or their jackets Most of them just tried to eat it straight off, and some of them even choked to death.These tiny amounts of flour were the only food that the deportees received during the entire period of their stay on the island. The more resourceful among them tried to make some rudimentary sort of pancakes, but they had nothing to mix or cook them in… It was not long before the first cases of cannibalism occurred.40
In the Stalinist era, millions of Russian citizens were loaded into trains and taken away.
Stanford researcher Robert Conquest's book, The Harvest of Sorrow, has this to say about the exiles of Stalin's time:
Industrial projects in the Soviet Union were carried out by the forced labor of prisoners. This photograph shows Uzbek children among those working under terrible conditions on the construction of the Fergana tunnel.
Up to 15 and even 20%, especially young children, are reported dying in transit, as was to be the case again in the 1940s, with the mass deportations of minority nationalities. Of course, the deportees were in every sort of physical condition, some of the women pregnant. A Cossack mother gave birth on a deportation train. The baby, as was usual, died. Two soldiers threw the body out while the train was on the move. Sometimes the deportees were taken more or less directly to their final destination. Sometimes, they remained in local towns…In Archangel all the churches were closed and used as transit prisons, in which many-tiered sleeping platforms were put up. The peasants could not wash, and were covered with sores. They roamed the town begging for help, but there werestrict orders to locals not to help them. Even the dead could not be picked up. The residents, of course, dreaded arrest themselves. In Vologda city too, forty-seven churches were taken over and filled with deportees.41
What made Stalin become so merciless was the materialist philosophy he believed in. An unsmiling portrait of Marx hung in the Office where he signed millions of death warrants.
Another method of mass murder used against exiles were the labor camps.Between the years 1928 and 1953 (when Stalin died), an estimated more than 30 million individuals whose ideas differed from those of the Soviet administration were arrested and sent to gulags, generally established in regions like Siberia where conditions were unlivable. More than two thirds of these—that is, at least 20 million—died in these camps. Inmates living on the edge of starvation were worked between 14 and 16 hours a day, and were executed by camp guards on the least excuse. Some inmates were deliberately starved to death; others died, their physical health broken from lack of nourishment and terrible living conditions. Many others were made to work in light and shredded clothing, froze to death in the Siberian cold. First a prisoner's fingers and toes would freeze and fall off, then his ear or nose would "break off." Hundreds of thousands are known to have suffered and died in this way. In The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956, the famous Russian author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn gives further examples of this horror.