It's possible to say that Darwin's theory includes that of Marx and Engels, because Communism is also a theory of "evolution" adapted to history and sociology. Anton Pannekoek, a renowned Darwinist-Marxist thinker, sums this up in his book Marxism and Darwinism published at the beginning of the 20th century:
The scientific importance of Marxism as well as of Darwinism consists in their following out the theory of evolution, the one upon the domain of the organic world, of things animate; the other, upon the domain of society… Thus, both teachings, the teachings of Darwin and of Marx, the one in the domain of the organic world and the other upon the field of human society, raised the theory of evolution to a positive science. In doing this they made the theory of evolution acceptable to the masses as the basic conception of social and biological development.1
Darwinism and Marxism are fully compatible in two basic arguments:
1. Darwinism proposed that all existing things consist of "matter in motion." This alleges that God neither created nor ordered matter and that therefore, all life arose by chance. Human beings are a species of animal, evolved from other, lesser animals. But these claims rest on no scientific proof and have been proven false be subsequent scientific discoveries. But Darwin's theory harmonizes with the views of Marx and Engels, who believed that only matter existed, and that the whole of human history can be explained in material terms. (For more information, please refer toDarwinism Refuted:How the Theory of Evolution Breaks Down in the Light of Modern Science by Harun Yahya, Goodword Books, 2002 and The Evolution Deceit by Harun Yahya, Ta-Ha Publishers, 2002)2. . Darwinism proposed that "conflict" is the motivating force that brought about development in living creatures. His basic supposition was that the natural world's resources weren't sufficient to support living things; that therefore, organisms had to fight a constant struggle that drove evolution. The dialectical method adopted by Marx and Engels is the same as Darwin's. According to dialectics, the single motive force underlying development in the universe is the conflict between opposites. Human history has progressed by means of this conflict. Humanity itself has advanced in the same way.
When examined closely, the theories of Marx-Engels and Darwin appear to be in total harmony, as if they have arisen from a single source. Darwin applied materialist philosophy to nature, while Marx-Engels applied it to history.
Darwin (left), Engels and Marx (right) has seen the equivalent in terms of communist theory. According to Engels, Marx, materialism, social sciences, and Darwin applied to biology.
In fact, Karl Marx was the first to realize Darwin's important contribution to materialism. Reading Darwin's The Origin of Species after its publication in 1859, Marx found in it great support for his own theory. A letter he wrote to Engels on December 19, 1860, says that Darwin's book "contains the basis in natural history for our view."2 In a letter to Lassalle in January 16, 1861, he says, "Darwin's book is very important and serves me as a basis in natural science for the class struggle in history."3
Marx's dedication to Darwin of his greatest work, Das Kapital, shows the common mind that they shared. In the German edition of his book that he sent Darwin, Marx wrote with his own hand, "To Charles Darwin from a true admirer, from Karl Marx."
According to Plekhanov, a leader of Russian communism, "Marxism, Darwinism, the application of the social sciences".
Engels also admired Darwin: "Nature is the test of dialectics, and it must be said . . . that in the last resort, nature works dialectically and not metaphysically . . . In this connection, Darwin must be named before all others."4 Elsewhere, he said that, "Just as Darwin discovered the law of evolution in organic nature, so Marx discovered the law of evolution in human history."5
Georgy Valentinovich Plekhanov, one of the leaders of Russian Communism whom Lenin praised for his command of all international Marxist literature, summed it up succinctly when he said that Marxism is"Darwinism in its application to social sciences."6
Professor Malachi Martin, of the Vatican's Pontifical Bible Institute explains the relation between Marx and Darwin in these words:
. . . when Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution, Marx regarded it as far more than theory. He seized upon it as his "scientific" proof that there was no kingdom of Heaven, only the kingdom of Matter. Darwin had vindicated Marx in his rejection of Hegel's [idealism]. Ignoring the fact that Darwin's theory of evolution was just that a theory. . . Marx adapted Darwin's ideas to the social classes of his day. . . Darwin's theory of evolution being what it was, Marx reasoned that the social classes, like all matter, must always be in struggle with each other for survival and dominance.7
In denying creation, Darwin gave Communism a supposedly scientific foundation. Therefore Trotsky, one of the bloody leaders of the Bolshevik Revolution regarded Darwin as the proponent of dialectic materialism in the field of the natural sciences.
Contemporary evolutionists also note the strong bond between Darwinism and Marxism. One of today's most famous proponents of the theory of evolution is the biologist Douglas Futuyma. In the preface to his Evolutionary Biology, he says, "Together with Marx's materialist theory of history and society… Darwin hewed the final planks of the platform of mechanism and materialism."8Another famous evolutionary paleontologist Stephen J. Gould, said that "Darwin applied a consistent philosophy of materialism to his interpretation of nature."9 Leon Trotsky who, together with Lenin, was one of the architects of the Russian Revolution, described the discovery of Darwin as "the highest triumph of the dialectic in the whole field of organic matter ."10
All this shows the great affinity between Darwinism and Marxism, that without Darwin's influence, there would have been no Marxist theory. And if Darwinism is invalid, we will understand that Marxism is invalid too. But the converse is true as well: In any society where Darwinism is widely accepted, the growth of Marxism is inevitable.
For this reason, it is very important to understand why Darwinism has no validity in the fields of either science or sociology. This understanding will prevent the revitalization of Marxism which stems from it, and which is lying in wait today—as well as forestalling any return to the agonies that humanity has suffered over the previous century. History shows that without Darwinism, there can be no Marxism.