Though born in Europe, Communism's first revolution took place farther east, in Russia. In the first half of the 20th century, it moved even farther to eastward until 1949, when China—the world's populous country—fell to guerillas led by Mao Tse-tung. For ten years, Mao's militants engaged in attacks against government forces across China to bring about the world's second largest Communist revolution. The results of this second revolution were the same as in the original Bolshevik revolution: criminal assaults, mass murders, torture, famine, impoverishment, degeneration, resulting in an introverted, depressed society of fear.
After Lenin, Mao brought the second important change to Communist theory, bringing innovations to Marxism in three important areas:
1) Marx and the Communist ideologues following him laid great importance on the idea of the "working class" proletariat. But Mao believed that the peasant class was the true leaders of the revolution and proposed the idea of "peasant socialism."2) Instead of following Lenin's idea of a Communist party demonstrating in city centers to prepare the way for revolution, Mao established a "guerilla war" and organized a Communist party based in the countryside and in the mountains.3) In place of the movement toward internationalism, the foundation of Marxism that Lenin adopted, Mao favored nationalism and developed the idea of "National Socialism."
The reason behind these three different approaches was the conditions in which Mao found himself. In China, where almost the whole population was composed of peasants with a conservative, nationalist frame of mind, Mao had no other choice than to establish "nationalist peasant socialism." Unavoidably, Mao gave priority to the peasants, applied the model of the "country guerilla," and organized among the peasantry.
One of the millions of victims
of Mao's guerilla war.
of Mao's guerilla war.
Chinese Communism developed and came to power with Stalin's support. But Red China's brutality was worse than Stalin's.
This explains not only why Maoism was different from Leninism, but why it became an even more savage, barbarous and rigid ideology. The advent of Maoism added to Communism—which was already pitiless and bloodthirsty—a greater degree of ignorance, fanatic nationalism and hostility to culture and civilization. Total calamity was the result. Maoism was the worst kind of Communism; in fact we can say it was the worst of the worst.
Maoism influenced not only China but later passed to Cambodia (in the time of the Khmer Rouge), North Korea, and even Albania. Maoism gained power with Stalin's help, and Soviet-Chinese relations were very good in Stalin's day. But this relationship fell apart in the 1960s, and the two countries became enemies. Sino-Soviet rivalry divided the Communist world, separating allies of China from those allied with the Soviet Union.
What Maoism brought upon China, and those Communist countries that followed China, was as dark and bloody as the Russia of Lenin and Stalin. But as the "worst of the worst," Maoism created much more terrible regimes.
In the following pages, we'll examine the red savagery that embraced Asia.